Tax and Business-related Terminology Translations and Charts


Japanese to English Finance and Tax-related Terminology Translations and Charts

  • 会計帳簿 (かいけいちょうぼ) – account book
  • 買掛金 (かいかけきん) – accounts payable
  • 売掛金 (うりかけきん) – accounts receivable
  • 貸借対照表 (たいしゃくたいしょうひょう) – balance sheet
  • 青色申告 (あおいろしんこく) – blue tax return; compare white tax return
  • 消費税 (しょうひぜい) – consumption tax (VAT, excise duty, sales tax, etc)
  • 法人税 (ほうじんぜい) – corporate tax
  • 貸借 (たいしゃく) – debit and credit
  • 延納 (えんのう) – deferred payment
  • 扶養控除 (ふようこうじょ) – dependent deduction (tax-exemption for dependents)
  • 配当金 (はいとうきん) – dividends
  • 複式簿記 (ふくしきぼき) – double-entry bookkeeping
  • 事業主 (じぎょうぬし) – entrepreneur
  • 経費; 必要経費 (けいひ; ひつようけいひ) – expenses; necessary expenses
  • 確定申告 (かくていしんこく) – final tax report for the year
  • 会計年度 (かいけいねんど) – fiscal year
  • 固定資産税 (こていしさんぜい) – fixed asset tax
  • 固定利率 (こていりりつ) – fixed interest rate; compare floating interest rate
  • 変動利率 (へんどうりりつ) – floating interest rate; compare fixed interest rate
  • 専従者 (せんじゅうしゃ) – full-time worker
  • 収支内訳書 (しゅうしうちわけしょ) – income and expenditure breakdown
  • 所得税 (しょとくぜい) – income tax; income tax calculation chart
  • 自営業 (じえいぎょう) – independent business; self-employed
  • 相続税 (そうぞくぜい) – inheritance tax; rates and charts
  • 元帳 (もとちょう) – ledger
  • 清算書 (せいさんしょ) – liquidation statement or account
  • 地方税 (ちほうぜい) – local tax (municipal tax falls under this category)
  • 雑収入 (ざつしゅうにゅう) – miscellaneous income
  • 住民税 (じゅうみんぜい) – municipal tax; chart
  • 国民健康保険 (こくみんけんこうほけん) – national health insurance; online health insurance calculator
  • 国民年金 (こくみんねんきん) – national or state pension
  • 所有者 (しょゆうしゃ) – owner
  • 所有権 (しょゆうけん) – ownership (of land, etc)
  • 権利収入 (けんりしゅうにゅう) – passive income
  • 予定納税 (よていのうぜい) – prepayment of income tax
  • 個人年金 (こじんねんきん) – private pension
  • 私道負担 (しどうふたん) – private road tax (included in fixed asset tax)
  • 損益清算書 (そんえきせいさんしょ) – profit and loss statement
  • 公的年金 (こうてきねんきん) – public pension
  • 不動産収入 (ふどうさんしゅうにゅう) – real estate income
  • 出納帳 (すいとうちょう) – receipt journal
  • 修正申告書 (しゅうせいしんこくしょ) – revised income tax return
  • セットバック (real estate termi.) – the reclaiming by the city of the land area within 2 meters of the center of a public road when building or rebuilding on private property. If the opposite side of the road is a river, railroad track, etc, from which land cannot be taken, then land within 4 meters of the opposite edge is reclaimed.
  • 単式簿記 (たんしきぼき) – single-entry bookkeeping
  • 復興特別所得税額 (ふっこうとくべつしょとくぜいがく) – special reconstruction tax
  • 配偶者特別控除 (はいぐうしゃとくべつこうじょ) – special spousal deduction; chart
  • 配偶者控除 (はいぐうしゃこうじょ) – spousal deduction
  • 課税所得 (かぜいしょとく) – taxable income
  • 課税 (かぜい) – taxation
  • 源泉徴収 (げんせんちょうしゅう) – tax collected at the source; aka tax withholding
  • 減価償却 (げんかしょうきゃく) – tax depreciation
  • 課税控除 (かぜいこうじょ) – tax exemption
  • 非課税 (ひかぜい) – tax exemption
  • 免税所得 (めんぜいしょとく) – tax-free income
  • 税金還付 (ぜいきんかんぷ) – tax rebate
  • 定期預金 (ていきよきん) – term deposit
  • 定期生命保険 (ていきせいめいほけん) – term life insurance; compare whole life
  • 使用者 (しようしゃ) – user
  • 給与収入 (きゅうよしゅうにゅう) – wage income
  • 給与所得 (きゅうよしょとく) – wage income after deduction
  • 給与所得控除 (きゅうよしょとくこうじょ) – wage income tax deduction; chart
  • 白色申告 (しろいろしんこく) – white tax return; compare blue tax return
  • 終身生命保険 (しゅうしんせいめいほけん) – whole life insurance; compare term life
  • 年末調整 (ねんまつちょうせい) – year-end tax adjustment

Attached Charts:

Income Tax Chart (所得税;控除)

Income tax T is calculated as T = (A)×(B)(C)

Taxable income (A)
Tax rate (B)
Deduction (C)
≤1.95 million yen 5% 0 yen
>1.95 ∼ ≤3.3 million yen 10% 97,500 yen
>3.3 ∼ ≤6.95 million yen 20% 427,500 yen
>6.95 ∼ ≤9 million yen 23% 636,000 yen
>9 ∼ ≤18 million yen 33% 1,536,000 yen
>18 million yen 40% 2,796,000 yen
  • Taxable income (A) is your remaining income after income-related expenses and initial deductions are taken out (see pie-graph 2 in the image below). Deduction (C) refers to the final pre-tax deduction (see pie-graph 4).

Tax Piegraph

  • Note the distinction between income tax deductions and wage income tax deductions.

Wage Income Deduction Chart (給与所得控除)

Wage income
Deduction
≤1,625,000 yen 650,000 yen
>1,625,000 yen ∼ ≤1,800,000 yen 40%
>1,800,000 yen ∼ ≤3,600,000 yen 30% + 180,000 yen
>3,600,000 yen ∼ ≤6,600,000 yen 20% + 540,000 yen
>6,600,000 yen ∼ ≤10,000,000 yen 10% + 1,200,000 yen
>10,000,000 yen ∼ ≤15,000,000 yen 5% + 1,700,000 yen
>15,000,000 yen 2,450,000 yen
  • The above is a generalized deduction chart. For a more detailed breakdown, see zeikin5.

Standard Juuminzei (municipal tax) Chart (住民税) (may vary slightly by region; see regional chart to confirm your region’s rates)

per Capita
% of Income
Prefectural tax 1,000 yen + 500 yen 4%
City tax 3,000 yen + 500 yen 6%
  • Aside from slight variations, municipal tax is more or less equal across the country per unit taxable income. This contrasts with the cost of national health insurance, which is based on various local factors and can therefore differ greatly by city.
  • As with income tax, municipal tax is not tax deductible.
  • Per capita municipal tax was increased 1,000 yen (500 yen each) from 2014 for 10 years for the reconstruction of the Tohoku region.
  • Life insurance payments are generally tax deductible, but the amount varies between income tax and municipal tax, as well as whether your plan started before or after 2011. (See New life insurance deduction plan.)
  • How to calculate your juuminzei based on your income.

Special Spousal Deduction Chart (配偶者特別控除)

After-basic-deduction Income
Deduction
0 to 380,000 yen 0 yen
380,001 to 399,999 yen 380,000 yen
400,000 to 449,999 yen 360,000 yen
450,000 to 499,999 yen 310,000 yen
500,000 to 549,999 yen 260,000 yen
550,000 to 599,999 yen 210,000 yen
600,000 to 649,999 yen 160,000 yen
650,000 to 699,999 yen 110,000 yen
700,000 to 749,999 yen 60,000 yen
750,000 to 759,999 yen 30,000 yen
760,000 and over 0 yen
  • The column on the left is what the spouse earns, and the column on the right is the deduction that can be claimed by the main earner.
  • The “basic deduction” above varies depending on income, see salary tax chart.
  • Those whose spouse is earning 380,000 yen or less in after-basic-deduction income, qualify for the general spousal deduction, which is a full 380,000 yen.

Related pages you might find helpful:

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